Ground Based Measurement



Sky Radiometer:

An automatic CIMEL sun and sky scanning radiometer deployed in Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur as part of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). It takes measurements of the direct sun radiance at eight spectral channels (340, 380, 440, 500, 670, 870, 940 and 1020 nm) with triplet observations per wavelength and diffuse sky radiances at four spectral channels (440, 670, 870 and 1020 nm)


Optical Particle Counter (OPC):

The particle size analyzer/dust-monitor Model 1.108 also known as Optical Particle Counter (OPC) is a small portable unit, used for the continuous measurement of particles in the air. This instrument measures two basic modes e.g. particle counts as counts litre–1 or mass as μg m–3. The instrument measures the cumulative number concentration in 15 channels from 0.3 to 20 mm with a detection range in 1–106 counts litre–1 with a sensitivity of 1 particle liter–1. The instrument operates at flow rate of 1.2 liters minute–1.


Anderson Sampler:

Anderson Sampler is used routinely from 1–29 December 2004 for air sampling to monitor the population of airborne particles near the surface. The air inlet is uniform on all sides of the sampler to provide an effective particle capture air velocity between 20–35 cm/sec. at the recommended flow rate between 40-60 ft3/min. The gable roof design of the sampler allows the sampled air to be evenly distributed over the surface of a downstream filter, where sample is collected.  


High Volume Sampler (HVS):

The High Volume Sampler (HVS) samples ambient particles on a filter, operated from 1–29 December 2004 everyday from 9am–5pm. Air is drawn into a covered housing and through a filter by a high flow rate blower at 1.1 to 1.5 m3/ min that allows total suspended particulate matter with diameter of less than 100 μm (stokes equivalent diameter) to collect on the filter surface. Particles with diameter 0.1–100μm are ordinarily collected on glass fiber filters.



The Aethalometer (AE–42) is an instrument that measures suspended carbonaceous particulates, an important species of air pollutant. Wavelength-dependent absorption (at 7 wavelengths: 0.37, 0.45, 0.571, 0.615, 0.66, 0.88, and 0.95 nm). Its power consumption is approximately 40 W at either 115 or 230 VAC, its weight is approximately 35 lbs. (15 kg.), and its dimensions are 19" rack width, 11" (26 cm.) height and 12" (30 cm.) depth. The 'portable' model is constructed in a smaller case with carrying handle, internal 12-volt pump and internal 12-volt battery.  The instrument was operated at a flow rate of 2.6 liters/min and at an average time base of 1–3 min from 1–29 December. The instrument is fully automatic and completely self–contained and uses a continuous filtration and optical transmission technique to measure BC concentration.


Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM):

Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is a cascade Impactor that has the potential to provide real-time measurements of total as well as size segregated mass concentration of aerosols. The instrument operates at a flow rate of 240 ml min-1 and segregates aerosol samples into ten size bins between 25 and 0.05mm. Measurements were made approximately at hourly intervals for the whole month of December with the sampling duration of 6 min. 


Fog Sampler:

Three-stage size fractioning fog water collector (SF–FWC 3) deployed at IIT Kanpur, an urban-Industrial city in Ganga basin, for the collection of fog water. Fog collector is capable of simultaneous collection of fog in three independent sizes (D50: for 1st, 2nd and 3rd stages are 21, 15 and 4 μm respectively) for chemical analysis. It works on inertial impaction technique. Altogether nine fog episodes were observed during winter of December 04–January 05.


Automatic Weather Station:

The Automatic Weather Station is situated near the air strip in IIT Kanpur campus. It provides temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind data (wind speed and direction).


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