Gujarat Earthquake of January 26, 2001

Publication on Gujarat Earthquake

       1. R. P. Singh, S. Bhoi and A. K. Sahoo
           Significant changes in the ocean parameters after the Gujarat earthquake
           Current Science, v. 80, no. 11, p. 1376-1377, 2001.

       2. R. P. Singh, S. Bhoi, A. K. Sahoo, Uday Raj, S. Ravindran
           Surface manifestations after the Gujarat earthquake
           Current Science, v. 81, no. 2, p. 164-166, July 2001.

       3. R. P. Singh, A. K. Sahoo, S. Bhoi, M. Girish Kumar, C. S. Bhuiyan
           Ground Deformation of the Gujarat Earthquake of 26 January 2001
           J. of Geological Society of India, v. 58, p. 209-214, 2001.

       4. R. P. Singh, Sanjeeb Bhoi, A. K. Sahoo
           Changes Observed on Land and Ocen after Gujarat Earthquake of January 26, 2001 using IRS Data
           International J. Remote Sensing, v. 23, no. 16, p. 3123 - 3128, 2002.

        5. R.P. Singh, S. Bhoi, S. Dey, N. Harijan, A.K. Sahoo and R. Kanwar
            Anomalous Changes in Ocean Parameters After Gujarat Earthquake of January 26, 2001
            Proceedings  Symposium International "En route to GODAE" 13-15 June 2002, Biarritz, France, p. 369 - 370, 2002.


        6. S. Dey and R.P. Singh.,

            Surface Latent Heat Flux as an earthquake precursor,

            Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, v. 3, no. 6, page 749 - 755, 2003.


        7. S Dey, S. Sarkar and R.P.Singh.,

            Anomalous changes in column water vapor after Gujarat earthquake

            Advances in Space Research, Volume 33, Issue 3, 2004, Pages 274-278.


        8. Y. Okada, S. Mukai, R.P. Singh

            Changes in atmospheric aerosol parameters after Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001

            Advances in Space Research, Volume 33, Issue 3, 2004, Pages 254-258.


  A team of 3 members (Dr. R.P. Singh, Mr. Sanjeeb Bhoi and Mr. Alok K. Sahoo) visited Gujarat during February 6 - 10, 2001 and collected ground truth information to interpret satellite data and ground deformation survey in meizoseismal area. Figure 1 shows some of the locations of the places.

A brief description of the studies taken by this team is given below:

The Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001 generated intense shaking which was felt by about 70 % people of India. The intense shaking brought out changes in the ocean and land surface and subsurface. At numerous places, emergence of water on the earth's surface brought hope among people about the future availability of drinking water in Gujarat. The preliminary laboratory analysis of water samples collected in the epicentral area show high Chloride concentration and salt content which ruled out any hope of the potable water. Figure 2 shows the view of the earth surface near Rapar, which shows crater like structure, which is common in volcanic area as a result of liquefaction. The craters are seen on the surface from where the water has come out as a fountain up to about five feet high which was seen by local people and the water was continued for about two hours. Near to these craters, long cracks up to about 50 cm wide running about 500 meter long with orientation East-West, North-east and South-west were seen. Near to these craters, pebbles (siliceous material) were also emerged in water fountain due to pressure. Such observations conclude that this earthquake was associated with significant component of vertical force.

Figure -2

Dome type of structures developed due to liquefaction after the Earthquake in the nearby fields of the Rapar - Dhaurabira road (70°  36´ E, 23° 39´ N). White spots indicate the salt deposits after the expulsion of brackish water.

Multi sensors (IRS P4 OCM, MSMR and IRS 1D) and multi date remote sensing data were acquired from National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. Using the multi sensors and multi date data, various ocean and land changes have been mapped.


The IRS P4 Oceansat is the first in the series of operational ocean remote sensing satellites, which was launched on May 26, 1999. The OCM sensor records in 8 bands at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The field of view of the optics is 430, providing a swath of 1420 km from 720 km altitude. The digital data for two dates, one prior (January 18, 2001) and after (January 26, 2001 soon after) earthquake were analysed and chlorophyll concentration and suspended solid were deduced. The comparison of pre (Figures 2a and 3b) and post (Figures 2b and 3b) images shows drastic changes in chlorophyll concentrations and suspended solids in adjoining Arabian ocean especially in creek region of Gujarat and also along the Western coast.

Figure 3


IRS P4 Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) data were analysed prior and after the earthquake. Significant changes in brightness temperature over land and ocean region were noticed at two frequencies 6.6 and 10 GHz in both the vertical and horizontal polarisations. At some places, increase and at some places decrease in brightness temperature have been found. The significant changes in brightness temperature are likely due to the changes in moisture level. The changes in brightness temperature is also supported from the LISS III and OCM data which also show significant changes in the moisture content.


IRS 1D LISS-III pre and post data were purchased from National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. Surface features were extracted from these images and tectonic Lineaments were extracted. The post earthquake image of January 29 shows significant surface manifestations in the epicentral area. The comparison of Figures 4 a and 4b reveal that the moisture level has increased significantly due to which the paleo channel is clearly observed from the post image (Figure 4b). In The surface manifestations were also observed at the same places in the field.

Figure 4

The detailed analysis of multi sensors and multidate data are underway. The combination of low and high resolution remote sensing data is likely to throw information related to the changes in ocean and land parameters. The integration of these information through GIS is likely to give some clues about the possible cause of this deadly earthquake and will also be useful in understanding this unique earthquake. The routine measurements of IRS P4 OCM data is needed which may give some indication of the building of the stresses inside the Earth due to upwelling of the ocean. Such routine analysis is only possible if such data are provided to the potential users freely.

Visit together with Japanese team

IIT K (Dr. R.P. Singh, Mr. Chandresh, Mr. Bhuiyan, Mr. Sanjeeb Bhoi, Mr. Harish Vishwakarma, Mr. Umesh Dwivedi) team together with three Japanese scientists (Dr. Tamao Sato - University of Hirosaki, Mr. Jim Mori - Kyoto University and Mr. Hiroaki Nigashi - National Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan) visited Gujarat during February 26 until March 7, 2001. During stay of 10 days following studies have been carried out. The team stayed in tent provided by Mr. B.P. Barot, Dy. SP, State Reserve Police near Bachau for few days Japanese people stayed in Sharma Resort at Gandhidham.

Aftershocks monitoring

Japanese team together with IIT K deployed eight seismometers at following sites to record aftershocks

It is believed that eight seismometers must have recorded numerous aftershocks. The processing of the data is underway.

Ground Deformation Survey

Numerous fissures and cracks were noticed by IIT K and Japanese team. The most prominent surface deformation as a possible secondary surface rupture is found in North-South direction about 5 Km from Kharoi on Kharoi - Rapar road. The rupture is seen up to about 3 km. The surface rupture is found to be dipping about 700 west with significant displacement.

                                                                                                                 Figure 5

                                                                        A group photograph of the team involved in the field survey.

Figure 6

Liquefaction zones in the nearby fields of the Rapar - Dhaurabira road (70° 36´ E,
  23° 39´ N). The trend of the cracks is N 235° – N 55°.

Figure 7

Extensive salt water field of around 1 sq. km emerged due to the
  earthquake near Lodai village (23° 23´ N, 69° 57´ E).

 Figure 8

Huge crater like openings developed near Lodai Village (69° 57´ E, 23° 23´ N). There was a lot of expulsion
of brackish water from these holes, which on drying has led to the formation layers of salt.

Figure 9

Small crater type of structure filled with salt water (salt water because of liquefaction)
 developed due to the earthquake near Lodai village (23° 23´ N, 69° 57´ E).

 Figure 10

 A big tentional crack (~ 30 cm deep) in a nearby field on Bhuj – Khewda
  road (23° 29´ N, 69° 39´ E). Strike of the crack is N 175° – N 355°. Salt
  water has come up to the surface through the crack due to liquefaction.

Figure 11

 Extensive salt water field in a nearby field on Bhuj – Khewda road
  (23° 29´ N, 69° 39´ E).

Figure 12

Compressional cracks in a nearby field on Rapar – Dhaurabira road (23° 40´ N,
70° 36´ E). Strike of the crack is N 345° – N 165°.

Figure 13

Small tentional cracks at the same location as the previous photograph. The strike
of the crack is N 60° – N 240°. Salt water on the surface because of the liquefaction through the crack.

Figure 14

Cracks developed on the surface near Barudia
village (23° 34´ N, 70° 24´ E). Strike of the fault is N 330° - N 150°.


Figure 15

Cracks developed on the surface near Barudia village (23° 34´ N, 70° 25´ E). Strike of the fault is N 330° - N 150°.

 Figure 16

Cracks developed on the surface near Barudia village (23° 34´ N,
70° 24´ E). Strike of the fault is N 330° - N 150°.

Figure 17

Cracks developed on the surface near Barudia village (23° 34´ N, 70° 24´ E). Strike of the crack is N 330° - N 150°.

Figure 18

Surface manifestation developed near Barudia village (23° 34´ N, 70° 24´ E). Strike of the fissure is N 330° - N 150°.

Figure 19

A layer of salt formed due to the evaporation of the brackish water as a result of liquefaction due to the earthquake.

Figure 20

Picture of the dried out shrubs and trees due to the intense shaking generated during the earthquake.

Figure 21

A dislodgment of telephone pole due to vertical uplift.

Figure 22

Distribution of clothes during earthquake relief work to the earthquake affected people in Nanichirai village (23° 11´ N, 70° 13´ E).

Figure 23

People are taking the remains of the houses after the earthquake near Anjar village (23° 06´ N, 70° 02´ E).

 Figure 24

A damaged water storage tank

 Figure 25

Geophones installed to measure the seismic waves generated due to earthquake activity.

Figure 26

A resistivity survey being undertaken near Budharmora (23° 20´ N, 70° 11´ E).

 Figure 27

Bridge on Rapar – Bachau road (23° 35´ N, 70° 33´ E). The strike of the bridge is N 20° – N 200°. Dextral type displacement (~ 6 inch displacement) of the bridge towards N 20°.

 Figure 28

Bridge on Bachau – Bhuj road (23° 19´ N, 70° 09´ E). Strike of the bridge
is N 105° – N 285° and displacement is towards N 265°.

 Figure 29

Cracks, several meters in depth developed near Kankoi village (23° 33´ N, 70° 22´ E).

Figure 30

A Border Security Force camp on the way to Allabund Fault.

Figure 31

Bhuj DIG and IIT K and Japanese team

 Figure 32

Contact between two different lithology, 5 kilometers from
Kharoi, along Kharoi -Rapar road. Along this contact rupture upto 5 Km was seen.

Figure 33

Sanjeeb Bhoi over Alah Bund Fault created during 1916 earthquake.

Figure 34

Jim Mori and Nagashi in relax mood in the camp.