Prediction of Bibble Growth in Boiling 
Some of the recent contributions involve prediction of bubble growth in film boiling. Professor Biswas and his colleagues, have developed computational tools that have enabled them to explore a very important area of Engineering Science. The effort has resulted in several publications in the toptier journals. Professor Biswas has performed simulations of film boiling and bubble formation in water and R134a using a Coupled LevelSet and VolumeofFluid (CLSVOF) based interface tracking method. The algorithm has been extended to simulate boiling in presence of Electrohydrodynamic forces. The most significant contribution of the group is the following. With the growth of the film, the influence of heat flux decreases and the RayleighTaylor mode of instability sets in with the surface tension force competing with the destabilizing gravitational force. The instability mechanisms responsible for bubble growth, change from RayleighTaylor to TaylorHelmholtz as the wall superheat is increased. The following paper has been highly admired by the peers in the field:
 G. Tomar, G. Biswas, A. Sharma and S.W.J. Welch, Multimode Analysis of Bubble Growth in Saturated Film Boiling, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 20, 0921011  0921017, (2008).
The other notable publications in related areas are:
 S. Chatterjee, A. Hens, K. C. Ghanta, G. Biswas, Molecular dynamics study of sessile ionic nanodroplet under external electric field, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 229, 116143111614313, (2021)
 V. Pandey, G. Biswas, A. Dalal, S.W.J. Welch, Bubble Lifecycle During Heterogeneous Nucleate Boiling, Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME), Vol. 140, 121503112150317, (2018)
 V. Pandey, G. Biswas, and A. Dalal, Effect of superheat and electric field on saturated film boiling, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 28, 0521021 05210218, (2016)
 Hens, G. Biswas and S. De, Evaporation of water droplets on Ptsurface in presence of external electric field  A molecular dynamics study, The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 143, 0947021  09470211, (2015)
 A. Hens, G. Biswas and S. De, Analysis of interfacial instability and multimode bubble formation in saturated pool boiling using Coupled Level Set and Volume of Fluid approach, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 26, pp. 0121051 01210514, (2014)
 A. Hens, R. Agarwal and G. Biswas, Nanoscale study of boiling and evaporation in a liquid Ar film on a Pt heater using molecular dynamics simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 71, pp. 303312 (2014)
 G. Tomar, G. Biswas, A. Sharma and S.W.J. Welch, Influence of Electric Field on Saturated Film Boiling, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 21, 0321071  0321078 (2009).
 G. Tomar, D. Gerlach, G. Biswas, N. Alleborn, A. Sharma, F. Durst S. W. J. Welch, and A. Delgado, Twophase Electrohydrodynamic Simulations Using a VolumeofFluid Approach, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 227, pp 12671285, (2007).
 S.W.J. Welch and G. Biswas, Direct Simulation of Film Boiling Including Electrohydrodynamic Forces, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 19, 0121061  01210611, (2007).
 G. Tomar, G. Biswas, A. Sharma and A. Agrawal, Numerical Simulation of Bubble Growth in Film Boiling Using CLSVOF Method, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 17, 1121031  11210313, (2005).
 D. Agarwal, S.W.J. Welch, G. Biswas, and F. Durst, Planar Simulation of Bubble Growth in Film Boiling in NearCritical Water Using a Variant of the VOF Method, Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME), Vol. 126, pp. 329338, (2004).


2. Dynamics of Falling Drops on a Liquid Surface 
The study deals with the understanding of drop dynamics during partial coalescence. When a drop of liquid1 falls through liquid2 to eventually hit the liquid2liquid1 interface, its initial impact on the interface can produce daughter droplets of liquid1. In some cases, a partial coalescence cascade governed by selfsimilar capillaryinertial dynamics is observed, where the fall of the secondary droplets in turn continues to produce further daughter droplets. A transition regime from partial to complete coalescence proceeds via a number of intermediate steps, such as thick and thin jet formation and gasbubble entrapment. The following publications have long lasting value:
 H. Deka, G. Biswas, K. C. Sahu, Y. Kulkarni, A. Dalal, Coalescence dynamics of a compound drop on a deep liquid pool, Journal of Fluid Mechanics (JFM Rapids), Vol. 866, pp. R21R211, (2019).
 S. K. Das, A. Dalal, M. Breuer, G. Biswas, Evolution of jets during drop impact on a deep liquid pool, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 34, pp 022110102211010, (2022).
 H. Deka, B. Ray, G. Biswas, and A. Dalal, Dynamics of tongue shaped cavity generated during the impact of highspeed microdrops, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 30, pp. 042103104210314, (2018).
 H. Deka, B. Ray, G. Biswas, and A. Dalal, P.H. Tsai, A.B. Wang, The regime of large bubble entrapment during a single drop impact on a liquid pool, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 29, pp.092101109210113 , (2017).
 B. Ray, G. Biswas and A. Sharma, Regimes during liquid drop impact on a liquid pool, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 768, pp. 492523, (2015).
 B. Ray, G. Biswas and A. Sharma, Bubble pinchoff and scaling during liquid drop impact on liquid pool, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 24, pp. 0821081  08210811, (2012)
 B. Ray, G. Biswas and A. Sharma, Generation of secondary droplets in coalescence of a drop at a liquid/ liquid interface, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 655, pp. 72104, (2010)


3. Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Heat Exchangers 
Professor Gautam Biswas has conducted a wide range of numerical studies for the improvement of Heat Transfer in Fintube and Platefin heat Exchangers. The investigations address the fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement and suggest improvements in the practical applications. He was one of the members of a tripartite international project (INEELIdaho, IIT Kanpur and Yokohama National University) for the investigation of heat transfer enhancement of aircooled condensers for geothermal power plants. The project was sponsored by NEDO, Japan. His work on enhancement of heat transfer has become textbook material [page 210212, Principles of Convective Heat Transfer by M. Kaviany, Springer, 2001]. He was one of the keynote speakers at the Twelfth International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC), held in Grenoble, France. The publications endorsing this seminal contribution are:
 G. Biswas and H. Chattopadhyay, Heat Transfer in a Channel Flow with Builtin WingType Vortex Generators, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 35, pp. 803814, (1992).
 G. Biswas, P. Deb and S. Biswas, Generation of Longitudinal Streamwise Vortices  A Device for Improving Heat Exchanger Design, Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME), vol. 116, pp. 588597, (1994).
 G. Biswas, N.K. Mitra and M. Fiebig, Heat Transfer Enhancement in FinTube Heat Exchangers by Winglet Type Vortex Generators, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.37, pp. 283291, (1994).
 P. Deb, G. Biswas and N.K. Mitra, Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Rectangular Channel with Longitudinal Vortices, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 38, pp. 24272444, (1995).
 G. Biswas, K. Torii, D. Fujii and K. Nishino, Numerical and Experimental Determination of Flow Structure and Heat Transfer Effects of Longitudinal Vortices in a Channel Flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 39, pp. 34413451, (1996).
 A.A. Bastani Jahromi, N.K. Mitra and G. Biswas, Numerical Investigations on Enhancement of Heat Transfer in a Compact FinandTube Heat Exchanger Using Delta Winglet Type Vortex Generators, Enhanced Heat Transfer, Vol.6, pp. 111, (1999).
 R. Vasudevan, V. Eswaran, and G. Biswas, Winglet Type Vortex Generators for PlateFin Heat Exchangers Using Triangular Fins, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, Vol. 38, pp. 533555, (2000).
 A. Jain, G. Biswas and D. Maurya, WingletType Vortex Generators with CommonFlowUp Configuration for FinTube Heat Exchangers, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, Vol. 43, pp. 201219, (2003).
 V. Prabhakar, G. Biswas and V. Eswaran, Numerical Prediction of Heat Transfer in a Channel with a Builtin Oval Tube and Various Arrangements of the Vortex Generators, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, Vol. 44, pp. 315333, (2003).
 S. Tiwari, D. Maurya, G. Biswas and V. Eswaran, Heat Transfer Enhancement in Crossflow Heat Exchangers using Oval Tubes and Multiple Delta Winglets, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 46, pp. 28412856, (2003).
 S. Tiwari, G. Biswas, P.L.N. Prasad and S. Basu, Numerical Prediction of Flow and Heat transfer in a Rectangular Channel with a Builtin Circular Tube, Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME), Vol. 125, pp. 413421, (2003).
 S.R. Hiravennavar, E.G. Tulapurkara, G. Biswas, A Note on the Flow and Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Channel with Builtin Winglet Pair, Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow , Vol. 28, pp. 299  305, (2007).
 G. Biswas, H. Chattopadhyay and A. Sinha, Augmentation of Heat Transfer by Creation of Streamwise Longitudinal Vortices using Vortex Generators, Heat Transfer Engineering, Vol. 33, pp. 406  424, (2012).
 A Pal, D. Bandyopadhyay, G. Biswas and V. Eswaran, Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using DeltaWinglet Type Vortex Generators with a Common Flow Up Arrangement, Numerical Heat Transfer Part A, Vol. 61, pp. 912928, (2012).
 A. Sinha, K. A. Raman, H. Chattopadhyay and G. Biswas, Effects of different orientations of winglet arrays on the performance of platefin heat exchangers, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 57, pp. 202  214, (2013).
 P. Saha, G. Biswas and S. Sarkar, Comparison of winglettype vortex generators periodically deployed in a platefin heat exchanger  A synergy based analysis, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 74, pp. 292305, (2014)


4. Dynamics of Rising Air Bubbles through a Liquid Column 
The problem of dynamic bubble formation from a submerged orifice in an immiscible Newtonian liquid has been addressed by Professor Biswas and his team. They have considered various cases for the surrounding liquid, namely the liquid in a quiescent condition and the liquid as a coflowing stream with the gas. The full cycle, from formation to detachment of the bubbles and the corresponding bubble dynamics, was analyzed. The simulation results showed that the minimum radius of the neck decreases with a power law behavior and the power law exponent in a coflowing liquid is less than 1/2 as predicted by the Rayleigh  Plesset theory for quiescent inviscid liquids. Single periodic and double periodic bubbling (with pairing and coalescence) regimes were observed in the investigations. Some often referred publications are:
 I. Chakraborty, B. Ray, G. Biswas, F. Durst, A. Sharma, and P. S. Ghoshdastidar, Computational Investigation on Bubble Detachment from Submerged Orifice in Quiescent Liquid under Normal and Reduced Gravity, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 21, pp. 0621031  06210317, (2009)
 I. Chakraborty, G. Biswas, and P. S. Ghoshdastidar, Bubble generation in quiescent and coflowing liquids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 54, pp. 4673  4688, (2011).
 I. Chakraborty, G. Biswas and P.S. Ghoshdastidar, A coupled levelset and volumeoffluid method for the buoyant rise of gas bubbles in liquids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 58, pp. 240  259, (2013).
 I. Chakraborty, G. Biswas, S. Polepalle and P.S. Ghoshdastidar, Bubble Formation and Dynamics in a Quiescent HighDensity Liquid, AIChE Journal, Vol. 61, pp. 3996  4012, (2015).


5. Bluff Body Flows

Interesting investigations in the wake zone of the bluff bodies placed in a uniform/ nonuniform stream have been conducted by Professor Biswas and coresearchers. Professor Biswas and coresearchers have focused on the spatial and temporal transitions of the wake. The transition sequence and the flow structures have been analyzed and significant new observations have been highlighted. These have been presented in several publications as cited below.
 G. Biswas, H. Laschefski, N.K. Mitra and M. Fiebig, Numerical Investigation of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Channel with a Builtin Square Cylinder, Numerical Heat Transfer  Part A, vol. 18, pp. 173188, (1990).
 A. Mukhopadhyay, G. Biswas and T. Sundararajan, Numerical Investigation of Confined Wakes Behind a Square Cylinder in a Channel, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, vol. 14, pp. 14731484, (1992).
 S. Singh, G. Biswas, and A. Mukhopadhyay, Effect of Thermal Buoyancy on the Flow through a Vertical Channel with a builtin Circular Cylinder, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, Vol. 34, pp. 769789, (1998)
 A.K. Saha, K. Muralidhar,and G. Biswas, Vortex Structures and Kinetic Energy Budget in TwoDimensional flow Past a Square Cylinder, Computers and Fluids, Vol. 29, pp. 669694, (2000).
 A.K. Saha, G. Biswas and K. Muralidhar, Numerical Study of the Turbulent Unsteady Wake Behind a Partially Enclosed Square Cylinder using RANS, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 178, pp. 323341, (1999).
 A.K. Saha, K. Muralidhar,and G. Biswas, Transition and Chaos in TwoDimensional Flow Past a Square Cylinder, Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), Vol. 126, pp. 523532, (2000).
 A.K. Saha, G. Biswas, and K. Muralidhar, TwoDimensional Study of the Turbulent Wake Behind a Square Cylinder Subject to Uniform Shear, Journal of Fluids Engineering (ASME), Vol. 123, pp. 595603, (2001).
 A. K. Saha, G. Biswas, and K. Muralidhar, Threedimensional Study of Flow Past a Square Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers, Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 24, pp. 5466, (2003).
 A. K. Saha, K. Muralidhar and G. Biswas, Investigation of Twoand Three Dimensional Models of Transitional Flow Past a Square Cylinder, Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), Vol. 129, pp. 13201329, (2003).
 G. Biswas, M. Breuer and F. Durst, BackwardFacing Step Flows for Various Expansion Ratios at Low and Moderate Reynolds Numbers, Journal of Fluids Engineering (ASME), Vol. 126, pp. 362374, (2004).
 R. Ranjan, A. Dalal and G. Biswas, A Numerical Study of Fluid flow and Heat Transfer around a Square Cylinder at Incidence using Unstructured Grids, Numerical Heat Transfer Part A, Vol. 54, pp. 890913, (2008).
 N. Senthil Kumar and G. Biswas, A Finite Element Study of the Onset of Vortex Shedding in a Flow Past Twodimensional Circular Cylinder, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 8, pp. 288298, (2008).
 G. Biswas and S. Sarkar, Effect of Thermal Buoyancy on Vortex Shedding Past a Circular Cylinder in Cross Flow at Low Reynolds Numbers, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 52, pp. 18971912, (2009).
 S. Sen, S. Mittal and G. Biswas, Steady Separated Flow Past a Circular Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 620, pp. 89119, (2009).
 D. Chatterjee, G. Biswas and S. Amiroudine, Numerical simulation of flow past row of square cylinders for various separation ratios, Computers and Fluids, Vol. 39 pp. 49–59, (2010)
 S. Sarkar, A. Dalal and G. Biswas, Unsteady wake dynamics and heat transfer in forced and mixed convection past a circular cylinder in cross flow for high Prandtl numbers, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 54, pp. 3536–3551 (2011).
 S. P. Singh and G. Biswas, Vortex induced vibrations of a square cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers, Journal of Fluids and Structures, Vol. 41, pp. 146155, (2013)
 S. P. Singh, G. Biswas and P. Nithiarasu, A numerical study of vortex shedding from a circular cylinder vibrating in the inline direction, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 23, pp. 1449  1462, (2013).
 S. Sarkar, S. Ganguly, G. Biswas and P. Saha, Effect of cylinder rotation during mixed convective flow of nanofluids past a circular cylinder, Computers and Fluids, Vol. 127, pp. 4764 (2016)


6. Flows in Turbomachinery 
Professor Biswas has developed Finite Element based methods to analyse flows in the complex passages in hydraulic turbomachines. He has implemented a rather intricate concept, StreamlineUpwind PetrovGalerkin method, in a complex threedimensional geometry to find out the nuances of flow physics. Notable mentions in this area are:
 G. Biswas, V. Eswaran, G. Ghai and A. Gupta, A Numerical Study on Flow Through the Spiral Casing of a Hydraulic Turbine, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 28, pp. 143156, (1998).
 P.K. Maji and G. Biswas, Threedimensional Analysis of Flow in the Spiral Casing of a Reaction Turbine using a Differently Weighted Petrov Galerkin Method, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 167/ 12, pp 167190, (1998).
 P.K. Maji and G. Biswas, Analysis of Flow in the Spiral Casing Using a Streamline Upwind PetrovGalerkin Method, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 45, pp. 147174, (1999).
 P.K. Maji and G. Biswas, Analysis of Flow in the PlateSpiral of a Reaction Turbine Using a Streamline Upwind PetrovGalerkin Method, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol. 34, pp. 113144, (2000).


7. Study of Turbulence Transport using Largeeddy Simulation 
Largeeddy simulation is stateoftheart and one of the most elegant methods for analysing turbulent flows. Professor Biswas is among the first group of researchers in India who started largeeddy simulation for impinging jets and bluff body flows. Identification of mechanism of separation, capturing coherent structures, near and farwake dynamics have been analysed with insightful description concerning physics of flow and heat transfer. Some publications worth mentioning are:
 T. Cziesla, G. Biswas, H. Chattopadhyay and N.K. Mitra, LargeEddy Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer in an Impinging Slot Jet, Int. J. Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 22, pp. 500508, (2001).
 H. Chattopadhyay, G. Biswas and N.K. Mitra, Heat Transfer from a Moving Surface due to Impinging Slot Jets, Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME), Vol. 124, pp. 433440, (2002).
 Y. Srinivas, G. Biswas, A.S. Parihar and R. Ranjan, LargeEddy Simulation of High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flow Past a Square Cylinder, Journal of Engineering Mechanics (ASCE), Vol. 132, pp. 327335, (2006).
 P. Saha and G. Biswas, Assessment of a ShearImproved Subgrid Stress Closure for Turbulent Channel Flows, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 53, 4856 – 4863, (2010)
 P. Saha, G. Biswas, A.C. Mandal and S. Sarkar, Investigation of coherent structures in a turbulent channel with builtin longitudinal vortex generators, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 104, pp. 178198, (2017).


8. Microfluidics 
Microfluidics is emerging as one of the most promising areas of Engineering Science that finds plenty of applications in Biosciences and Bioengineering and Nanotechnology. Professor Biswas is working in this exciting area through a collaborative approach. The collaborators are primarily the colleagues in IIT Guwahati, CSIRCentral Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur and IIT Kharagpur. Some noteworthy publications are:
 R.K. Arun, K. Chaudhury, M. Ghosh, G. Biswas, N. Chanda and S. Chakraborty, Controlled splitting and focusing of a stream of nanoparticles in a convergingdiverging microchannel, Lab on a Chip, Vol. 14, pp. 38003008, (2014).
 A. Hens, K. Mondal, G. Biswas and D. Bandyopadhyay, Pathways from disordered to ordered nanostructures from defect guided dewetting of ultrathin bilayers, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 465, pp. 128 139 (2016)
 R. K. Arun, N. Priyadarshini, K. Chaudhury, N. Chanda, G. Biswas and S. Chakraborty, PaperPDMS hybrid microchannel: a platform for rapid fluidtransport and mixing, J. Micromech. Microeng., Vol. 26, 1050081  1050089, (2016).
 R.K. Arun, P. Singh, G. Biswas, N. Chanda and S. Chakraborty, Energy generation from water flow over a reduced graphene oxide surface in a paper–pencil device, LabonaChip, vol. 16, pp. 35893596, (2016).


9. Thermal Hydraulics of Nuclear Reactors 
The mechanical design of the target module of an accelerator driven subcritical nuclear reactor system (ADSS) calls for an analysis of the related thermal–hydraulic issues because of the sheer large amount of heat generation in its spallation target system during the course of nuclear interactions with the molten lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) target. The window of the target module is subject to high heat fluxes due to the direct impingement of high energy proton beam on its surface. Through a series of investigations, the equations governing the flow and thermal energy are solved using the streamline upwind Petrov–Galerkin (SUPG) finite element (FE) method. Special consideration has to be given to the window under various thermal conditions, such as, isothermal, uniform and variable heat flux. Some notable contributions in this area are:
 K. Arul Prakash, G. Biswas and B.V. Rathish Kumar, Numerical Prediction of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Target System of an Axisymmetric Accelerator Driven Subcritical System, Journal of Heat Transfer (ASME), Vol. 129, pp. 582588, (2007).
 K. Arul Prakash, G. Biswas and B.V. Rathish Kumar, Thermal Hydraulics of the Spallation Target Module of an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System: A Numerical Study, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, pp. 46334652, (2006).
 K. Arul Prakash, G. Biswas and B.V. Rathish Kumar, Numerical Simulation of the Target System of an ADSS, International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 20, pp. 513520, (2006).
 K. Arul Prakash, S. De, B.V. Rathish Kumar and G. Biswas, A SUPG – Finite Element Study of an ADSS, Finite Element in Analysis and Design, Vol. 42, pp. 11231136, (2006).


10. Algorithm Related Work 
A numerical method for predicting viscous flows in complex geometries was developed through integral mass and momentum equations discretized into algebraic form using numerical quadrature by Professor Biswas and his colleagues. The method has significant novelty and advantage for solving NS equations in complex geometry. Some worthy mentions in this field are:
 A. Mukhopadhyay, T. Sundararajan and G. Biswas, An Explicit Transient Algorithm for Predicting Incompressible Viscous Flows in Arbitrary Geometry, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, vol. 17, pp. 975993, (1993).
A novel finitevolume formulation was proposed (based on an original contribution of Prof. V. Eswaran) for unsteady solutions on complex geometries. A computer code based on a cellcentered finitevolume method was developed to solve both twodimensional (2D) and threedimensional (3D) NavierStokes equations for incompressible laminar flow on unstructured grids.
 A. Dalal, V. Eswaran and G. Biswas, A Finite Volume Method for NavierStokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes, Numerical Heat Transfer Part B, Vol. 54, pp. 238259, (2008).
The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volumeoffluid method if the surface tension force plays an important role and the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The result can be an artificial velocity field at the interface (parasitic currents), which can destabilize the interface significantly. The three different algorithms compared can be distinguished by their methods to compute the surface tension force, namely, the method using a kernel function for smoothing the discontinuity at the interface, a combined levelset and volumeoffluid approach and a parabolic reconstruction of surface tension.
 D. Gerlach, G. Tomar, G. Biswas, and F. Durst, Comparison of VolumeofFluid Methods for Computing Surface TensionDominant TwoPhase Flows, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 49, pp. 740754, (2006).
 G. Tomar, D. Gerlach, G. Biswas, N. Alleborn, A. Sharma, F. Durst S. W. J. Welch, and A. Delgado, Twophase Electrohydrodynamic Simulations Using a VolumeofFluid Approach, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 227, pp 12671285, (2007).


Other Notable Contributions 
In addition to the above areas, Professor Biswas has done some collaborative research with Professor Ashutosh Sharma is the area of dewetting of thin polymeric coating on a low energy surface. They have shown by performing linear stability analysis that the patternwavelength is independent of viscoelasticity (OldroydB fluid) and depends only on the surface tension coefficient, film thickness and the effective Hamakar constant.
Some other research contributions can be described as the following:
The liquidside mass transfer rate in a centrifugal gasliquid contactor has been reported to be several times higher than that in conventional packed beds. The technique finds application in Higee Separation Process:
P. Sandilya, G. Biswas, D.P. Rao and A. Sharma, Numerical Simulation of the Gas Flow and Mass Transfer between Two Coaxially Rotating Disks, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, Vol. 39, pp. 285305, (2001).
The influence of thermocapillary or Marangoni convection on the growth of silicon crystals is investigated in an industrial Czochralski crucible using a quasidirect numerical simulations approach.
V. Kumar, G. Biswas, G. Brenner and F. Durst, Effect of Thermocapillary Convection in an Industrial Czochralski Crucible: Numerical Simulation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 46, pp. 16411652, (2003).
One of the recent investigations of Professor Biswas describes the laminartoturbulent transition of pipe flows through puff and slug structures. Together with Professor Franz Durst, he has shown that with increasing Reynolds number, ‘puff splitting’ is observed and the split puffs develop into slugs. Thereafter, the laminartoturbulent transition occurs in the same way as found for slug flows:
M. Nishi, B. Uensal, F. Durst and G. Biswas, LaminartoTurbulent Transition of Pipe Flows through Puffs and Slugs, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 614, pp. 425446, (2008) 
