An important trend in engineering design and manufacturing is the growth in the number of products and components of the products whose features sizes are measured in microns (10-6m). There is an increasing demand for the miniaturized components in the various fields, including aerospace, defense, medical instruments and many other fields. Micro and nano machining are tool-based machining techniques developed to produce miniaturized components of complex geometry and functionality.
Smaller products and sub assemblies means low power requirements, less material usage, better functionality per unit space; however the cost of the product is influenced significantly by micromachining processes which can be categorized as a silicon layering process, the LIGA process and other microscopic processes. Most of the products in micro technology use Silicon because it not only posses great electronic properties, but also useful mechanical properties like high strength, high elasticity, moderately low density and many more. The technologies for processing silicon are well-established owing to its widespread use in microelectronics.
Nanomachining is a newly developed technology for machining engineering materials with the undeformed chip thickness in nanometric scales. Nanomachining technology can be used to achieve ductile mode cutting with crack free and smooth surface in brittle materials like silicon, quartz, glass and ceramic.
High power is generated in most semi-conductors which act as a heat source. The present heat transfer capacity of heat sink cannot catch up with high power density generated. Many methods are used like forced cooling by heat pipe, heat absorption by phase transformation and more. However, they are not a good solution. Microtexturing is a good alternative in which micro patterns are made on the heat reservoir units and they act as a good heat sink. Lithography, plasma oxygen etching, CNC stamping are some of the techniques used to achieve micro Texturing.